Marco Segala

Marco Segala, Boursier Marie-Curie
Marco.Segala@ens.fr

Professor of history of philosophy
Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Università dell’Aquila (Italy)
“Marie Curie” Fellow
Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes (ITEM), CNRS-ENS, Paris

Adresse ITEM : 4, rue Lhomond / 75005 Paris (France)

          a) Degrees, Honours, Academic activity
1983-87: Student in philosophy, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)
1988-1992: Doctoral programme in philosophy, Università di Firenze (Italy)
1992-1994: "Cosimo Ridolfi" Fellowship for history of science, Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienze, Firenze (Italy)
1995 (January-July): "chercheur associé" at the Centre de recherche en histoire des sciences et des techniques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris (France).
1994, 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000: "Alexander von Humboldt" Fellowship at the Schopenhauer-Archiv, Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
1995-2002: Assistant Professor of history of philosophy, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Università dell’Aquila (Italy). Teaching (history of philosophy, history of science and philosophy of science) and dissertation supervision.
2002-: Associate Professor of history of philosophy, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Università dell’Aquila (Italy). Teaching (history of philosophy, history of science and philosophy of science) and dissertation supervision.
2009-:“Marie Curie” Intra European Fellowship (FP7 of the European Union), Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes (ITEM), UMR 8132 of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the École Normale Supérieure, Paris (France).

          b) Research activity
My research activity has been devoted to the history of scientific and philosophical ideas, history of science, the philosophy of music and the relations between science and philosophy.
          1) History of geology since 1850.
The research was developed in the period 1986-1990 at Pisa, Florence and London (Geological Society). In 1990 and 1991 I published some papers and a book on the continental drift theory and the controversy about it.
Main subjects: the development of tectonics in the second half of the nineteenth century; Wegener’s notion of continental drift and his arguments to sustain it; controversy on continental drift in Germany (1912-1922); controversy on continental drift and the birth of the earth sciences (1922-); controversy on continental drift and the origin of the plate tectonics theory; history of continental drift theory as a model for the philosophical analysis of the scientific progress.
Main contributions: previously the continental drift controversy had been located in UK and USA in the 1920s and had been considered terminated by the time of Wegener’s death in 1930; the idea of the mobility of the earth crust would have been eventually resuscitated in the 1960s by plate tectonics. Analysis of scientific periodicals, books and handbooks show that the controversy originated in Germany in 1912 and provided themes and arguments later developed during the controversy in UK and USA in the 1920s; Wegener was not the first scientist to assert continental drift but he was the only one able to arise interest, discussion and, eventually a new accepted theory based on the notion of mobility; the controversy did not end in 1930 but continued in the following decades, and plate tectonics originated from arguments and criticism about the notion of continental drift; the same scientists who contributed to the development of the plate tectonics theory were the first historians of the revolution in the earth sciences and contributed to the idea of “death” (in 1930) and “resurrection” (in the 1960s) of continental drift.
         * See Publication 1

        2) History of philosophy, focused on Schopenhauer's philosophy
The research started in the period 1990-1992 at Florence and Frankfurt (Schopenhauer-Archiv). I resumed the topic in 1998. On the subject I submitted my doctoral dissertation and published one book and some articles.
Main subjects: the origin of Schopenhauer’s philosophy in the scientific and philosophical culture around 1800; Schopenhauer’s philosophy of nature in relation to Schelling’s Naturphilosophie; the relationship between metaphysics and the sciences in Schopenhauer’s philosophy; Schopenhauer’s notion of Will.
Main contributions: the role of the sciences for the origin and development of Schopenhauer’s philosophy has been traditionally neglected. Diachronic analysis of the philosopher’s works and manuscripts show the importance of the sciences for Schopenhauer’s metaphysics and philosophy of nature. Emphasis is also given to his reading of Schelling’s Naturphilosophie, which contributed to define and formulate Schopenhauer’s interpretation of scientific knowledge in philosophy and his relationship with Kant and postkantian philosophy.
           * See Publication 2

          3) 
Physiology, phrenology, mesmerism and philosophy
The research was developed in the period 1994-1998 at Florence, Frankfurt (Schopenhauer-Archiv), Paris (Centre de recherche en histoire des sciences et des techniques, CNRS). I published some papers and a book on the subject (see below: Publications).
Main subjects: physiology and natural philosophy in Germany (Goethe, Schelling, Humboldt, Ritter); neurophysiology, mesmerism and phrenology (Mesmer, Gall, Soemmerring, Reil, Burdach, Magendie, Flourens); the role of physiology in Schopenhauer’s metaphysics (Cabanis, Bichat, Kielmeyer).
Main contributions: the relations between physiology and natural philosophy in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century have been analysed in order to revisit debates on mesmerism, phrenology and rhabdomancy. The origins of neurophysiology have been investigated in order to evaluate their relevance in postkantian philosophy (Schopenhauer and Schelling). The interrelations between physiology, epistemology and metaphysics in the first half of the nineteenth century appear much more relevant and effective than previously recognized. They can successfully explain Schopenhauer’s writings devoted to physiology.
           * See Publication 3

          4) Philosophy and history of music in the Nineteenth century.
The research was developed in the period 1995-2003 and focused on Schopenhauer, Beethoven, Wagner and Romanticism. I published some papers on the subject (see below: Publications).
Main subjects: Schopenhauer’s music aesthetics; philosophy, science and the Romantic music; definition of the classical style (Hoffmann, Beethoven, Wagner, Mann).
Main contributions: analysis of so-called “absolute music”, the aesthetics developed by philosophers and composers around 1800, shows the until-now-neglected presence of elements taken from philosophy of nature and the sciences. Composers like Beethoven or Mendelssohn developed their ideas on music from Schelling’s or Hegel’s philosophy of nature. Romantic composers had thoughtful knowledge of the sciences, Schopenhauer’s notion of music integrated philosophy of nature and the sciences.
           * See Publication 4

          5) Science and philosophy in the Nineteenth century.
I have cultivated the topic for many years and I am still working on it. My present project is devoted to the process of the professionalization of the sciences. I published some papers on the subject
Main subjects: theories of colours (Newton, Marat, Goethe, Schopenhauer); metaphysics and scientific creativity (Ampère, Ritter, Reil, Tommasi); science and philosophical inquiry (Schelling, Schopenhauer, German science and Romanticism); the Turin Academy of Sciences (Avogadro, Babbage); the process of professionalization of the sciences.
Main contributions: In the Nineteenth century science and philosophy were deeply related and my aim has been to shed light on some lesser known or neglected aspects of such a relationship. I analysed the importance of Kant’s and Schelling’s philosophy at the origin of Ampère’s electrodynamics, the role of German philosophy of nature in Tommasi’s naturalism, the Wolff-Leibniz tradition in Avogadro’s theory of matter. I inquired the metaphysical and epistemological aspects of some debates on the theory of colours (Marat and Goethe versus Newton, Schopenhauer versus Goethe). The seminal role of philosophy of nature (as developed by Schelling and Schopenhauer) has been followed in the development of scientific ideas or cultural movements (Romanticism and Monism).
           * See Publication 5

       c) Publications
1) History of geology  
1)La favola della terra mobile. La controversia sulla teoria della deriva dei continenti, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1990, 340 pp.
2)“L’inutile priorità. Wegener e i precursori della deriva dei continenti”, Nuncius, vol. V, fasc. 1, 1990, pp. 239-256
3)“Rivoluzioni geologiche: le tappe di un dibattito”, Intersezioni, vol. X, fasc. 2, 1990, pp. 369-384
4)“Quando la storia dimentica”, Sapere, 56, n. 11, 1990, pp. 43-48
5)“Epistemologia e deriva dei continenti”, Rivista di Filosofia, vol. LXXXIII, fasc. 1, 1991, pp. 71-99
6)“Catastrofismo e localismo: a proposito della controversia sulla teoria della deriva dei continenti”, Nuncius, vol. VI, fasc. 2, 1991, pp. 307-323
7)“Autobiografia e storiografia. Storia e retorica di una rivoluzione scientifica”, Bollettino filosofico dell’Università della Calabria, vol. 9, 1991, pp. 151-182
8)“Geologia e rivoluzione scientifica”, Nuova secondaria, VIII, n. 9, 1990-91, pp. 69-71; IX, n. 2, 1991-92, pp. 69-70; IX, n. 5, 1991-92, pp. 85-87 2)

2)History of philosophy, focused on Schopenhauer's philosophy  
9)Schopenhauer e le scienze: la filosofia della natura e il confronto con Schelling nella genesi della dottrina della Volontà, Ph.D. dissertation, Università di Firenze, 1993, 233 pp.
10)“Schopenhauer: due traduzioni e i manoscritti”, Giornale critico della filosofia italiana, vol. LXXI (LXX), fasc. I, 1992, pp. 149-152
11)“L’edizione degli scritti di Schopenhauer”, Giornale critico della filosofia italiana, vol. LXXIII (LXXV), fasc. I, 1994, pp. 156-159
12) “Filosofia, scienze naturali e biografia: il caso di Schopenhauer”, Intersezioni, vol. XV, fasc. 1, 1995, pp. 161-164
13)“Schopenhauer. Lettura di un filosofo”, Nuova secondaria, XV, n. 3, 1997-98, pp. 47-63
14)“La metafora scientifica in Schopenhauer”, in Segni e percorsi della modernità. Saggi in onore di Paolo Rossi, a cura di Ferdinando Abbri e Marco Segala, Arezzo, Dipartimento di Studi Storico-Sociali e Filosofici, Università degli Studi di Siena, 2000, pp. 123-156
15)"What is will?", Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch, 83, 2002, pp. 13-42
16)“The world as will and the Matrix as representation: Schopenhauer, Physiology, and The Matrix”, Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch, 87, 2006, pp. 185-199
17)“Schopenhauer e le scienze: questioni storiografiche”, in Filosofia e storiografia, III.2, Galatina (Lecce), Congedo, 2008, pp. 309-325
18)Schopenhauer, la filosofia, le scienze, Pisa, Edizioni della Normale, 2009, 429 pp.
19)“Knowledge as an accident. Schopenhauer’s Manuscripts on The Primacy of the Will over the Intellect”, Rectoverso, 5 – Génèse de la pensée, décembre 2009 [http://www.revuerectoverso.com/spip.php?article170]

3) Physiology, phrenology, mesmerism and philosophy  
20)“Fisiologia e metafisica in Schopenhauer”, Rivista di filosofia, LXXXV, n. 1, 1994, pp. 35-66
21)“I fantasmi nella filosofia di Schopenhauer”, Rivista di Filosofia, LXXXVIII, n. 2, 1997, pp. 223-251
22)I fantasmi, il cervello, l’anima. Schopenhauer, l’occulto e la scienza, Firenze, Olschki, 1998, 248 pp.
23)“Fisiologia della ghigliottina. Discussioni scientifiche sulla pena capitale dopo il Terrore”, in Il ruolo sociale della scienza (1789-1830), a cura di Ferdinando Abbri e Marco Segala, Firenze, Olschki, 2000, pp. 75-85
24)“Électricité animale, magnétisme animal, galvanisme universel: la recherche de l’identité entre hommes et nature”, Revue d’histoire des sciences, 54, 1, 2001, pp. 71-84
25)“La fisiología de Schopenhauer”, in José Montesinos, Javier Ordoñez, Sergio Toledo (eds.), Ciencia y Romanticismo, La Orotava, Fundación Canaria Orotava de Historia de la Ciencia, 2003, pp. 133-143

4) Philosophy and history of music in the nineteenth century  
26)“«L’altro polo del mondo»: musica e metafisica della musica in Schopenhauer”, in Filosofia e musica nell’età contemporanea. Studi e ricerche, a cura di Ferdinando Abbri, Arezzo, Dipartimento di Studi Storico-Sociali e Filosofici, Università degli Studi di Siena, 1995, pp. 21-37
27)“Musica romantica e storia delle idee”, in Filosofia e musica nell’età contemporanea. Studi e ricerche II, a cura di Ferdinando Abbri, Arezzo, Dipartimento di Studi Storico-Sociali e Filosofici, Università degli Studi di Siena, 1997, pp. 1-31
28)“Beethoven, Hoffmann e la musica assoluta”, in Musica e filosofia, a cura di Ferdinando Abbri e Elio Matassi, Cosenza, Pellegrini, 2000, pp. 33-68
29)“Sulla musica assoluta nei Buddenbrook”, in Ferdinando Abbri, Elio Matassi, Marco Segala, Anna Trzuskolas, Simone Zacchini, Le ambiguità del suono. Studi in filosofia della musica, Milano, Prometheus, 2003, pp. 51-71 5)

5)  Science and philosophy in the nineteenth century
30)“Contro Newton: retorica, scienza e metafisica nella Farbenlehre di Goethe”, Nuncius, vol. VIII, fasc. 2, 1993, pp. 671-688
31)“Ampère filosofo”, Nuncius, XII, fasc. 1, 1997, pp. 145-160
32)“Riflessioni sulla scienza romantica”, Nuncius, XIII, fasc. 2, 1998, pp. 677-691
33)“Schopenhauer è antischellinghiano?”, Rivista di Filosofia, XCII, n. 2, 2001, pp. 235-265
34)“Introduzione”, in Salvatore Tommasi, Il rinnovamento della medicina in Italia (1883), L’Aquila, Università dell’Aquila, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, 2003, pp. XV-XLIV
35)“Babbage, the Analytical Engine and the Turin Academy of Sciences”, in Ana Simões, Ana Carneiro, Maria Paula Diogo (eds.), Travels of Learning. A Geography of Science in Europe, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 233-247
36)“An Italian in Bavaria: Campetti, Ritter and the destiny of science in Germany”, in Ferdinando Abbri, Marco Segala (eds.), The Routes of Learning. Italy and Europe in the Modern Age, Florence, Olschki, 2003, pp. 101-118
37)“La scienza e la tecnica”, in Storia di Torino, storia di città, a cura di Marcella Guglielmo, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2004, pp. 49-61
38)“Natura, filosofia e scienza: Goethe, Schopenhauer, Schelling”, in Arte, scienza e natura in Goethe, a cura di Gian Franco Frigo, Raffaella Simili, Federico Vercellone, Dietrich von Engelhardt, Torino, Trauben, 2005, pp. 401-415
39)“Goethe, Schopenhauer e l’ottica sperimentale”, Rivista di Filosofia, XCVI, n. 2, 2005, pp. 217-231
40)“Scienza e pseudoscienza: alle origini della professionalizzazione delle discipline”, in Toscana e Europa. Nuova scienza e filosofia tra ‘600 e ‘700, a cura di Ferdinando Abbri e Massimo Bucciantini, Milano, Angeli, 2006, pp. 315-327
41)“Willensverneinung, philosophy of nature, sciences: Schopenhauer versus Schelling”, in L. Hühn - P. Schwab (Hrsg.), Die Ethik Arthur Schopenhauers im Ausgang vom deutschen Idealismus (Fichte/Schelling), Würzburg, Ergon, 2006, pp. 213-221
42)“Avogadro e la classificazione delle scienze”, in Il fisico sublime. Amedeo Avogadro e la cultura scientifica del primo Ottocento, a cura di Marco Ciardi, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2007, pp. 185-207
43)“Schopenhauer and Monism”, Jahrbuch für Europäische Wissenschaftskultur, 3, 2007, pp. 165-175
44)“Schopenhauer und die Naturwissenschften”, in Dieter Birnbacher und Matthias Koßler (Hrsg.), in Schopenhauer und die Schopenhauer-Schule, Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann, 2008, pp. 109-117

Edited books
1) Agostino Scilla, La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso, a cura di Marco Segala, introduzione di Paolo Rossi, Firenze, Giunti, 1997
2) Segni e percorsi della modernità. Saggi in onore di Paolo Rossi, a cura di Ferdinando Abbri e Marco Segala, Arezzo, Dipartimento di Studi Storico-Sociali e Filosofici, Università degli Studi di Siena, 2000
3) Il ruolo sociale della scienza (1789-1830), a cura di Ferdinando Abbri e Marco Segala, Firenze, Olschki, 2000
4) The Routes of Learning. Italy and Europe in the Modern Age, edited by Ferdinando Abbri, Marco Segala, Florence, Olschki, 2003

d) Participation in research groups, editorial boards, international schools
1) 1990-1995: Member of the editorial office of “Nuncius. Annali di storia della scienza”
2) 1992: Third International Summer School in History of Science, University of California at Berkeley
3) 1997-1999: participation in the research group “La rivoluzione scientifica nella chimica e nelle scienze biologiche: idee e contesti istituzionali”, project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research
4) 1998: participation in the research group Concept and Symbols of the 18th Century - Section Nature, project funded by European Science Foundation
5) Sixth International Summer School in History of Science, University of Uppsala
6) 2000-2002: participation in the research group “Gli archivi scientifici”, project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research
7) 2003-2005: Editor of the section “Scienza”, Dizionario Bompiani delle Opere, Milano, Bompiani, 2005
8) 2003-2005: participation in the research group “Figure, istituzioni, linguaggi e forme di comunicazione delle scienze nell'Età Moderna e Contemporanea”, project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research
9) 2004-2006, Editor of the sections “Scienza” and “Matematica”, Dizionario Bompiani degli Autori, Milano, Bompiani, 2006
10) 2005-2007: participation in the research group “Per una edizione elettronica del lascito di Schopenhauer: 1804-1818 (le fonti del Mondo come volontà e rappresentazione)”, project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research
11) 2006-2007: Member of the editorial board and author in the philosophy handbook Filosofia e cultura, a cura di A. La Vergata e F. Trabattoni, Firenze, La Nuova Italia, 2007
12) 2008-2010: participation in the research group “Per una edizione elettronica del lascito di Schopenhauer: continuazione”, project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research

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